汽車的輕量化改裝

上一篇 / 下一篇  2009-05-21 05:24:16

多數人會走上改裝這條不歸路,探究其原因,最主要就是對愛車動力性能不滿意,所以希望通過改裝達到加強動力輸出的目的。而加強動力的方法有很多種,自然進氣改裝從基礎的進排氣管升級到擴大缸徑加大排氣量,渦輪增壓愛好者也有更換重量級渦輪的大手筆,這些改裝手段的確能大幅提升愛車的性能,不過相對所付出的代價也令人咋舌,並不是所有的人都可以玩得起的。如何在有限預算下獲得一定的性能提升,輕量化就是一個相對經濟的選擇。

  很多車主希望通過改裝來達到加強動力輸出的目的,但是他們又不願意對發動機做任何改動,怕改裝後的耐用度會大大降低花錢還要擔驚受怕哪一天車子會突然出狀況。因此除了基本的進排氣改裝之外,另一個獲得較佳動力反應的就是輕量化部件的改裝,藉由將車重減輕的手法,在動力未獲得大幅提升的情況下,取得比原廠更優的功率與重量之比。

  輕量化的優點除了讓車子性能更好外,伴隨而來的第二個優點就是油耗會跟著降低。在同樣的功率輸出下較輕的車重對於發動機來說就是較輕的負載。

  輕量化還有一個優勢,就是車輛的操控穩定性也能提升,在底盤重量確實減輕之後,車輛在行駛時的顛簸會因底盤重量減輕,造成避振器往復作動的慣性力量減弱,整個反振的力量大幅減弱,車身會更加穩定。

  在瞭解輕量化的優點之後,接下來就要瞭解挑選輕量化部件的注意事項。其實輕量化部件在選購上,最重要的一點就是部件本身的材質強度。一般輕量化部件多為6系列鋁合金材質,強度較高的7075材質也有,只是7075材質的單價較高,一般人較難接受。

  一般市面上可買得到的輕量化部件,大家第一個想到的一定是輕量化輪輞。輕量化的軸輞除能減輕懸架系統負荷外,更具有因降低慣性造成不利回轉的重要意義,這與更換輕量化飛輪後,就能使發動機反應更好的原理相同。制動系統也是一樣的道理,我們在賽場上常可見到碳纖維的制動盤加上鎂合金超輕量輪輞的例子。因此在進行輕量化改裝的第一步,強烈推薦從輪輞下手。選購此類部件時除了注意材質之外,還有一個重點就是要看輪輞上注明的負載值。一般建議使用負載值600kg以上的輕量化輪輞,比較能夠兼顧強度。一組優秀的輕量化輪輞。大約能幫你減輕20kg的車重,算是輕量化改裝當中性價比最高的。別忘了在購買輕量化輪輞的同時,一併購入輕量化輪輞螺絲,讓你的車重盡可能地降低。當然,如果你的資金富裕,還可以一起購入鋁合金三角架,鋁合金制動卡鉗等。制動盤改裝也能有效減車重,以原廠通風盤來說,制動盤內部的散熱溝通常有48條,而競技改裝部品多為24條。

  發動機內部能減輕重量的地方也不少,大家所熟知的輕量化飛輪就是其中之一。原廠飛輪多為鑄鐵材質,對於曲軸來說是不小的負擔,換鋁合金材質約可減輕一半以上重量,而凸輪軸飛輪也能更換輕量化型式。

  很多車主都會改裝愛車,換賽車椅、賽車方向盤來增加愛車的戰鬥氣息;更換全段不銹鋼排氣管或是鈦合金消音器等。讓車輛更具有運動感覺,殊不知在這樣的改裝過程當中,已經達到輕量化車身的目的。以座椅來說,一張原廠座椅約為十幾公斤,一般市面上的賽車椅約為5-8kg,碳纖維材質的賽車椅就輕更多,如果原廠座椅還附電動可調功能的話,兩張換下來所減輕的重量則更為可觀。在排氣管改裝上,市面上多為不銹鋼材質,約比原廠輕三分之一的重量,如果是昂貴的鈦合金部件,更可以減輕一半以上,只是價錢太高,一般消費者較難接受。

  迷戀賽車改裝的車主,通常也有不少人會拿出資金來將愛車的外觀部分全部換成碳纖維材質,這可算得上是輕量化改裝的終極改造了,不過,鑒於耗資巨大,所以在這裏就不作為典型提倡了。

  雖說輕量化的優點很多,但相對的也會有一些缺點。輕量化後第一個產生的缺點就是輪胎接觸地面的下壓力會降低,抓地力會略顯不足,車重減輕輪胎無法緊貼地面是必然的物理現象,因此要選擇抓地力較好的軸胎,彌補下壓力的流失。再一個原因就是一定程度的輕量化改裝之後,多少會破壞原車的平衡性,一般的正常道路行駛或許還難以察覺,不過在激烈操控時可能就有不易掌握車身動態的情況產生,因此在改裝時一定要注意前後配重,如果要進行大規模的減輕車重動作,最好搭配四輪定位和測重儀器,在輕量化改裝的同時也能保持原有的均衡性,這點相當關鍵,請各位車主注意。

  輕量化改裝是提高愛車動力性能經濟性較高的選擇。然而減輕了愛車的重量。勢必要改變原廠的基本設定,對於愛車的性能會有不小的影響,所以這類改裝的重中之重是,一定要找有資歷並且能力出眾的改裝廠家來操刀。

 


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